Deportations from Transbaikalia, including the Buryat-Mongolian Autonomous Republic (today Chita region and Republic of Buryatia).

Deportations from Transbaikalia, including the Buryat-Mongolian Autonomous Republic (today Chita region and Republic of Buryatia).

Deportations from Transbaikalia, namely from the Buryat-Mongolian Autonomous Republic, to our region already started in the summer of the year 1930, when they carried off exiles from the districts located on Lake Baikal to Agul (river or place?), district of Irbey. During this time they deported exiles from Volhynia and Podolia to the River Agul.

The main streams of deportations from Transbaikalia to our region date back to the spring (March-April) and June 1931. The ethnic structure mainly comprised Russians and Buryats.

The spring deportation, on the whole, came from the southeastern districts of the present Chita region, from the Aksha and Byrkinsk districts. We do not have any information about deportations from the Buryat-Mongolian Autonomous Republic dating back to this period. A distinguishing mark of this stream is the fact that the majority of the freight trains transporting the exiles was unloaded at Kamarchaga station in the Mana district from which the deportees were transported to the Mana River for timber-rafting. After the drifting of ice was over, the exiles were taken down the Mana River on rafts (accompanied by armed guards, of course), and then further on the Yenissey to Krasnoyarsk. Later, in the summer, they started to transport the exiles from Krasnoyarsk, down the Yenissey to the north. Parts of them were taken to Igarka, others were disembarked in settlements near Yartsevo, and many came to the Lower Angara, to the Udereysk district (today district of Motygino) to Rybnoye, Tatarka, Motygino, Zaytsevo. Some of the exiles from this stream remained in Krasnoyarsk, in the timber mills and the timber trans-shipment points.

A considerable number of the exiles carried off to the Angara River did not stay there for long: in 1932-1933 many of them were transported to Yenisseysk. Some went to the woodworking factories in Yenisseysk and Maklakovo (today Lesosibirsk), others were transported into the taiga behind Yenisseysk, to the forest ranges (Laranovsk, Shaytanka and others) and probably a considerable number of those who had been taken away from the Lower Angara, to the district of North-Yenisseysk, to Sovrudnik and other gold mines of the "Yenisseysoloto" Trust. Besides, some of the deportees who had come to the Lower Angara by force, were transported directly to the gold mines in the Udereysk district (Ayakhta, Yelenka, Penchenga) during these years. Another part, it seems, not a really big one, was taken away from the Lower Angara to its tributary Tasseyeva, to nearby Mashukovka.

The deportation stream that started from Transbaikalia in the summer (June 1931), was different from the one that had taken place in the spring. As in the spring, the freight trains with exiles from the Buryat-Mongolian Autonomous Republic [from the southern and eastern aymaks (aymak = denomination of a district in some national autonomies)] were also unloaded in Kamarchaga, from which the exiles were taken to the Mana River to Narva, Bol'shoy and Maly Ungut as well as to some smaller settlements. However, they were kept there in exile instead of being moved to any other places.The greatest part of the exile stream from other Transbaikalian territories (i.e. from today's Chita district, including the province of Aginsk - an enclave of the Buryat-Mongolian Autonomous Republic) as far as we know was detrained in Krasnoyarsk. A certain number of exiles also remained in the woodworking factories and the timber trans-shipment points in Krasnoyarsk. A smaller group of the deportees from Transbaikalia, who finally ended up in the woodworking factory in Kansk, had probably been taken there either from exile labor settlements on the Agul River (or even from the Mana) or from some uncoordinated streams of the year 1933.

The streams of deportees from the provinces of Aginsk and the Ulyotovsk district that were unloaded in Krasnoyarsk in the summer of the year 1931 "opened" new directions for exile streams from Transbaikalia: the timber processing industries and forest ranges along the mountain rivers (Sissim, Ubey and their confluents) south of Krasnoyarsk. The exiles were transported on barges, up the Yenissey to the south, to the Dauriya district (today district of Balakhta), and then moved into the mountains. The largest exile settlement on this territory became Kichbash on the Sissim River . Later, some of the exiles were transferred from there to the settlement of Zhulget, not far from the Yenissey, while the others remained in the forest ranges in the mountains (Poperechka, Dvoyeust'e and others). In the middle of the 1930s many exiles from these places were transferred to the woodworking factories in Krasnoyarsk.

A considerable number of those exiles removed from the south-eastern districts of what is now the Chita region, were sent down the Yenissey River to the north. Many of them ended up in the woodworking factories in Maklakova and Yenisseysk, in the exile region of Yartsevo, in the North-Yenisseysk district and on the Lower Angara (probably Igarka), and a few, for some reason or other, were even taken to the Kemerovo district (village of Verkhoturovo).

The "June" exiles from the central districts of today's Chita region were also sent away down the Yenissey to the north. Some of them ended up in the aforementioned places, but a considerable number had to leave the barges on the mountainous right bank of the Yenissey, in the Bol'shaya Murta district. Thus arose the settlement of Predivinsk with two wharfs of the GUSMP (Main Directorate for the Arctic Ocean Sea Route) where barges were built. Some of the deportees, who had been disembarked in the future Predivinsk, were immediately or later relocated to the other side of the Yenissey, to a Krasnoyarsk sovkhoz (settlement Rossiyka).

Approximately in 1937 one of the wharfs in Predivinsk closed down and some of the exiles were taken to the woodworking factories in Krasnoyarsk, Yenisseysk and Maklakovo.

In 1933 new streams of mass deportations took place from Transbaikalia, however, not to our region, but to the Ob' River and to Kazakhstan. Obviously, only one of these train transports was unloaded in Kamarchaga, and the exiles, who had been removed from the western part of what is called the Chita region today, were sent to the timber industry settlements on the Mana River.

Many Transbaikalians also came to our region, "chased away behind Irkutsk". However, they were not put under military command (they did not have to appear for registration and periodic checks). Some of them have since settled around Magansk station, east of Krasnoyarsk, others in Achinsk and Kansk.

Table of main places of deportation of exiles from Transbaikalia

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