Internal exile with a fixed term until the middle of the 1930s

Internal exile with a fixed term until the middle of the 1930s

We are not aware of any convictions to internal exile with a fixed term into our region before 1930. However, at least starting from 1923 (and this happened already under Lenin), they commenced with the deportation of exiles from the European parts of the USSR and from West-Siberia into our region, mainly to the Turukhansk region. The most typical and "current" term of internal exile was determined to two to three years at that time.

During the 1920s a considerable number of the exiles with a fixed term consisted of clergymen and members of socialist parties (mainly Social Democrats and Social Revolutio-naries), in the 1930s of farmers and undesirable Communist leading functionaries of the VKP/b (All-Union Communist Party / Bolsheviks), which were all reckoned among the "Trotskyites", although many of them believed that Trotsky was in no way better than Stalin.

To give an example: in the 1920s the famous surgeon Voyno-Yasenetskiy (bishop of Luk) happened to get into "turukhansk" exile, and early in the 1930s the Communist boss L.B. Kamenev, who had fallen into disgrace, was exiled to Minusinsk.

About 1928 there are records on internal exiles (or "banishments") of clergymen, as well as laymen (attached to the church ) from Leningrad and the adjacent districts to the Turukhansk region, and from the East-Ukraina, including Kharkov, to the Kezhma district at the middle course of the Angara River. Such exiles were usually given a new term of exile or "banishment" by a Special Board, as soon as the first term had come to an end, without having the slightest prospect of a new "investigation".

Internal exiles of clergymen, who had been written out a fixed term, continued to be directed into our region until the middle of the 1930s. At that time they were not only taken away to the north, but also to the taiga districts in the Achinsk province (possibly to the Kansk region, as well).

As of 1930 the majority of exiles with a fixed term were farmers. In our region it also occurred that the "Special three-member board" did not impose a camp term on farmers but an exile term instead -- whenever a file turned out to be forged to such an extent that the whole matter became even quite embarrassing for the punishment organs.These convicts were usually exiled together with their families and at the end of the term the were simply transferred to "labor settlements" (see section 1,3). This exile used to be localized in places within our region.

The first "compact" stream of exiles with a fixed term into our region refers to the year 1929, the exile from Belorus (mainly from the Minsk and Vitebsk regions) for reasons of "the Polish matter" although among the exiles were not only Poles, but also many Russian families. The families (nominally the wives) were also imposed an exile term for two or three years.

Many of these exiles were sent away from Krasnoyarsk, down the Yenissey to the north, to the district of Kazachinskoye, where they were unloaded in Galanino and Momotovo. Some of the exiles from this stream possibly got immediately to the settlement of Steklozavod (= glass factory, 50 km distant from Krasnoyarsk). After the end of the term the exiles were released.

Analogously to the "Polish matter" there are records about a stream of exiles from Belorus late in the year 1932. Some of these exiles also happened to get to the settlement of Steklozavod. They were also set free at the end of the term.

In the huge stream of exiled farmers from Transbaikalia into our region (in 1931, see section 4.1) there were also exiles with a fixed term. In this case, the mechanism of how these exile terms came into being proved to be similar to the above described, which referred to our region.

In the 1930s, Minusinsk and Khakassia also became places of exile with a fixed term in our region (see above), particularly in case of convictions to exile for reasons of political activities. Thus, a group of "Trotskyists" from Kharkov was deported to Khakassia (to Shira) already in 1935.

Without taking the "fixed-term variant" of farmers into consideration, the cases of convictions to exiles with a fixed term apparently did not have any mass-scale character. We are aware of a case of fixed-term exile from Ushur (province of Achinsk) to Narym in 1932. There are also records that during those years there were cases of workers from the Krasnoyarsk locomotive repair workshop No. 3, who had been sentenced to exile. They were deported to Middle Asia for a period of three years (possibly to Samarkand). That was one of the comparatively early episodes in the struggle of the Communist powers against the workers and trade union movement, which had grown deep roots in the locomotive repair workshop No. 3.